A prestimulation evaluation protocol for patients with drug resistant epilepsy.


Neurostimulation is making its way into the therapeutic armamentarium of the epileptologists, with several invasive neurostimulation modalities available today and several less invasive modalities under investigation. Clinicians will soon face a choice that should not be made randomly. We introduce the concept of a prestimulation evaluation protocol, consisting of a series of rationally chosen investigations that evaluate the presence of biomarkers for response to various neurostimulation therapies. These biomarkers should reflect the susceptibility of the individual's epileptic network to a given neurostimulation technique. This will require elucidation of the specific mechanism(s) of action of the different neurostimulation modalities. This manuscript provides a hypothetical framework that may be more applicable in the near future when pre-clinical research progresses and can be translated into human applications.